Teacher Candidates’ Training Needs for Social-Emotional Competencies

  • Ece Özdemir Ted Ankara Koleji Vakfı Okulları
  • Mustafa Cem Babadoğan Ankara University Graduate School of Educational Sciences http://orcid.org/0000-0002-6796-5654
Keywords: Social- emotional skills, Pre-service teacher training, Social emotional learning


This study aims to identify the training needs of teacher candidates in social-emotional competencies. The study has a convergent parallel design in which qualitative and quantitative data were collected and analyzed during the same phase, and the two sets of results were subsequently merged into an overall interpretation. The qualitative data were obtained through unstructured interviews with 15 academicians selected using convenient sampling, and these data were analyzed through descriptive analysis. The quantitative data were analyzed using the mean scores of the responses to the scenario-based questionnaire administered to 161 teacher candidates selected using convenient sampling. According to the qualitative data analysis, the academicians stated that the social-emotional competencies teacher candidates should own are communication, empathy, self-awareness, and problem-solving competencies, followed by self-management, taking responsibility, entrepreneurship, critical thinking, cooperation, and decision-making competencies. Quantitative data on the mean scores obtained from the answers of the teacher candidates to the scenarios showed low self-knowledge and responsible decision-making competencies and high relationship skills, self-management, and social awareness competencies. When the qualitative data from the interviews and the quantitative data from the scenario-based questionnaire results were interpreted together, it was found that the social-emotional competencies identified by the academics were similar to the needs of teacher candidates in terms of social-emotional competencies. It is recommended that social-emotional competencies be supported by integrating lessons on these competencies in teacher training programs, extra-curricular activities, or curriculum development studies.


Download data is not yet available.


Aldrup, K., Carstensen, B., Köller, M. M., & Klusmann, U. (2020). Measuring teachers' social-emotional competence: Developing and validating a situational judgment test. Frontiers in Psychology, 11, 892. https://doi: 0.3389/fpsyg.2020.00892

Allbright, T. N., Marsh, J. A., Kennedy, K. E., Hough, H. J., & McKibben, S. (2019). Social-emotional learning practices: Insights from outlier schools. Journal of Research in Innovative Teaching & Learning, 12(1), 35–52.

Abanoz, T., Ogelman, H. G., & Saraç, S. (2022). Küçük çocuklarda cinsiyete göre sosyal ve duygusal yeterlik. Eğitim ve Öğretim Araştırmaları Dergisi, 11(3), 95-104.

Baum, A. C., & King, M. A. (2006). Creating a climate of self-awareness in early childhood teacher preparation programs. Early Childhood Education Journal, 33(4), 217–222. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10643-005-0050-2

Berg, M., Talvio, M., Hietajärvi, L., Benítez, I., Cavioni, V., Conte, E., Cuadrado, F., Ferreira, M., Košir, M., Martinsone, B., Ornaghi, V., Raudiene, I., Šukyte, D., Talić, S., & Lonka, K. (2021). The development of teachers and their student's social and emotional learning during the "learning to project"-training course in five European countries. Frontiers in Psychology, 12. https://doi.org/10.3389/fpsyg.2021.705336

Boyatzis, R. E., Goleman, D., & Rhee, K. (2000). Clustering competence in emotional intelligence: insights from the emotional competence inventory (ECI). Handbook of Emotional Intelligence, 99(6), 343–362.

Brackett, M. A., & Caruso, D. R. (2007). Emotional literacy for educators. SEL Media.

Brotheridge, C. M., & Grandey, A. A. (2002). Emotional labor and burnout: Comparing two perspectives of people work. Journal of Vocational Behavior, 60(1), 17–39.

Buchanan, R., Gueldner, B. A., Tran, O. K. & Merrell, K. W. (2009). Social and emotional learning in classrooms: A survey of teachers’ knowledge, perceptions, and practices. Journal of Applied School Psychology, 25(2), 187- 203.

Collaborative for Academic, Social, and Emotional Learning. (2022a). COVID-19 and remote learning.https://casel.org/fundamentals-of-sel/how-does-sel-support-your priorities/covid-19-and-remote-learning

Collaborative for Academic, Social, and Emotional Learning. (2022b). What is the CASEL framework? https://casel.org/fundamentals-of-sel/what-is-the- case-framework

Cherniss, C. (2012). Social and emotional competence in the workplace. In R. Bar-On & J. D. A. Parker (Eds.), The Handbook of emotional intelligence: Theory, development, assessment, and Application at Home, school, and in the workplace (pp. 433–458). Jossey-Bass.

Cohen, J., & Sandy, S. (2003). Perspectives in social-emotional education: Theoretical foundations and new evidence-based developments in current practice. Perspectives in Education, 21(4), 41-54.

Cohort Nominate. (2017). Communication skill for teachers: An overview. http://www.communicationskillsworld.com/communicationskillsforteachers.html.

Collie, R. J., Martin, A. J., & Frydenberg, E. (2017). Social and emotional learning: A brief overview and issues relevant to Australia and the Asia-Pacific. Social and Emotional Learning in Australia and the Asia-Pacific, 1-13.

Creswell, J. W., & Plano Clark, V. L. (2018). Designing and Conducting Mixed Methods Research, (3rd ed.). Sage.

Cüceloğlu, D. (2004). İnsan ve davranışı (7th ed.). Remzi yayınevi.

Damodaran, D., Thayyullathil, R. H., Tom, M., & Sivadas, R. K. (2022). Redefining learning through social-emotional learning: A review. International Journal of Health Sciences, 6, 3008-3019.

Davis, K., Hammett, R., Seagraves-Robinson, T., Christian, D.D., & Low, G. (2021). Social-emotional learning: a framework for practice and pedagogy. AI Practitioner, 23(4), 92-101.

Denham, S. A., & Burton, R. (1996). A social-emotional intervention for at-risk 4-year-olds. Journal of School Psychology, 34(3), 225-245.

Denham, S. A., von Salisch, M., Olthof, T., Kochanoff, A., & Caverly, S. (2002). Emotional and social development in childhood. In K. S. Peter & H. H. Craig (Eds.), Blackwell handbook of childhood social development. Blackwell Publishers.

Demirci, Z. A., Bıçakçı, M. Y., & Uysal, B. (2022). Investigation of the effect of social-emotional learning on peer relationships of adolescents. Journal of Education and Future, (21), 1-13.

Domitrovich, C., Cortes, R., & Greenberg, M. T. (2007). Improving young children’s social and emotional competence: A randomized trial of the preschool “PATHS” curriculum. The Journal of Primary Prevention, 28(2), 67-91.

Dung, D. T., & Zsolnai, A. (2022). Teachers' social and emotional competence: A new approach to teacher education in Vietnam. Hungarian Educational Research Journal, 12(2), 131-144.

Elias, M. J., Zins, J. E., Weissberg, R. P., Frey, K. S., Greenberg, M. T., Haynes, N. M., Shriver, T. P. (1997). Promoting social and emotional learning: Guidelines for educators. Association for Supervision and Curriculum Development.

Gold, Y., & Roth, R. A. (1993). Teachers managing stress and preventing burnout. Routledge.

Goleman, D. (1995). Emotional intelligence. Bantam Books.

Göksoy, S. (2014). Teacher candidates’ (pedagogical formation students’) communication skills. Creative Education, 5(14), 1334-1340.

Göl-Güven, M. (2016). The Lions Quest program in Turkey: Teachers' views and classroom practices. International Journal of Emotional Education, 8(2), 60-69.

Göl-Güven, M. (2022). Sosyal ve duygusal öğrenmeye dair: tanımı, kuramsal çerçevesi ve uygulamaları. Alternatif Eğitim Dergisi, 7(15), 9-18.

Greenberg, M. T., Kusche, C. A., Cook, E. T., & Quamma, J. P. (1995). Promoting emotional competence in school-aged children: The effects of the PATHS curriculum. Development and Psychopathology, 7(1), 117–136. https://doi: 10.1017/S0954579400006374

Gueldner, B. A., Feuerborn, L. L., & Merrell, K. W. (2020). Social and emotional learning in the classroom: Promoting mental health and academic success. Guilford Publications.

Halberstadt, A., Dunsmore, J., & Denham, S. A. (2001). Spinning the pinwheel, together: More thoughts on affective social competence. Social Development, 10, 130–136.

Hoffman, M. L. (2000). Empathy and moral development: Implications for caring and justice. Cambridge University Press.

Humphrey, N., Lendrum, A., Wigelsworth, M., & Greenberg, M. T. (Eds.). (2020). Social and emotional learning. Routledge.

Jennings, P. A., & Greenberg, M. T. (2009). The prosocial classroom: Teacher social and emotional competence in relation to child and classroom outcomes. Review of Educational Research, 79(1), 491–525. https://doi: 10.3102/0034654308325693

Jennings, P. A., & Frank, J. L. (2015). Inservice preparation for educators. In J. A. Durlak, C. E. Domitrovich, R. P. Weissberg, & T. P. Gullotta (Eds.), Handbook of social and emotional learning: Research and practice (pp. 422–437). Guilford Publications.

Jones, S. M., Bouffard, S. M., & Weissbourd, R. (2013). Educators' social and emotional skills are vital to learning. Phi Delta Kappan, 94(8), 62-65.

Jones, S. M., & Doolittle, E. J. (2017). Social and emotional learning: introducing the issue. The Future of Children, 27(1), 3-11.

Jones, S. M., & Bouffard, S. M. (2012). Social and emotional learning in schools: from programs to strategies. Social policy report. Society for Research in Child Development, 26(4), 3-22.

Joseph, D. L., Jin, J., Newman, D. A., & O'Boyle, E. H. (2015). Why does self-reported emotional intelligence predict job performance? A meta-analytic investigation of mixed EI. Journal of Applied Psychology, 100(2), 298.

Kesicioğlu, O. S., & Güven, G. (2014). Okul öncesi öğretmen adaylarının özyeterlik düzeyleri ile problem çözme, empati ve iletişim becerileri arasındaki ilişkinin incelenmesi. Electronic Turkish Studies, 9(5), 1372-1383.

Khan, A., Khan, S., Zia-Ul-Islam, S., & Khan, M. (2017). Communication skills of a teacher and its role in the development of the student’s academic success. Journal of Education and Practice, 8(1), 18-21.

Kılıç, C., & Alcı, B. (2022). Validity and reliability study of Turkish form of social-emotional learning questionnaire. International Journal of Educational Research, 13(1), 38-50.

Kowal, B., Włodarz, D., Brzychczy, E., & Klepka, A. (2022). Analysis of employees' competencies in the context of Industry 4.0. Energies, 15(19), 7142.

Kress, G. (2000). A curriculum for the future. Cambridge Journal of Education, 30(1), 133-145.

Kurna, Z. B. (2022). Sosyal ve duygusal öğrenme alanında çeşitli yaklaşımlar ve tanımlamalar. Alternatif Eğitim Dergisi, 7(15), 19-24.

Kyllonen, P. C. (2013). Soft skills for the workplace. Change: The Magazine of Higher Learning, 45(6), 16-23.

Lantieri, L. (2001). Schools with Spirit: Nurturing the inner lives of children and teachers. Beacon Press.

Lettau, J. (2021). The Impact of Children’s Academic Competencies and School Grades on their Life Satisfaction: What Really Matters? Child Indicators Research, 14(6), 2171-2195.

Loss, J. (2000). The communications contract. The Internal Auditor, 57(6), 88.

Lozano-Peña, G. M., Sáez-Delgado, F. M., & López-Angulo, Y. (2022). Social-emotional competence in primary and secondary school teachers: a systematic review. Páginas de Educación, 15(1), 1-22.

Makoelle, T. M. (2019). Teacher empathy: a prerequisite for an inclusive classroom. Encyclopedia of teacher education, 1-6.

Matthews, G., Zeidner, M., & Roberts, R. D. (2004). Emotional intelligence: Science and myth. MIT Press.

Mayer, J. D., Roberts R. D. ,& Barsade S. G. (2008). Human abilities: emotional intelligence. Annual Review of Psychology, 59, 507–536. https://doi: 10.1146/annurev.psych.59.103006.093646

Mayer, J. D., & Salovey P. (1997). What is emotional intelligence? In P. Salovey & D. J. Sluyter (Ed.), Emotional development and emotional intelligence: Educational implications (pp. 3–34). Basic Books.

McCluskey, G. (2017). Closing the attainment gap in Scottish schools: three challenges in an unequal society. Education, Citizenship and Social Justice, 12(1), 24–35. https:// doi: 10.1177/1746197916683468

Merritt, E. G., Wanless, S. B., Rimm-Kaufman, S., Cameron, C. E., & Peugh, J. L. (2012). The contribution of teachers’ emotional support to children’s social behaviors and self-regulatory skills in first grade. School Psychology Review, 41, 141–159.

Ministry of National Education. (2017). General competencies for the teaching profession. https://oygm.meb.gov.tr/meb_iys_dosyalar/2018_06/29111119_TeachersGeneralCompetencies.pdf

Ministry of National Education. (2021). OECD Survey on social-emotional skills. https://www.meb.gov.tr/meb_iys_dosyalar/2021_09/07170836_No19_OECD_Sosyal_ve_Duygusal_Beceriler_Arastirmasi.pdf

Mori, L. (2022). Synthesizing a Zest for Life with Social-Emotional Learning in the Educational System in Japan. International Journal of Educational Reform, 1-19. https://doi: 10.1177/10567879221129623

Nangle, D. W., Grover, R. L., Holleb, L. J., Cassano, M., & Fales, J. (2010). Defining competence and identifying target skills. In practitioner's guide to empirically based measures of social skills (pp. 3-19). Springer.

Omasta, M., Graham, M., Milling, S. L., Murray, E., Jensen, A. P., & Siebert, J. J. (2021). Social, emotional learning and the national core arts standards: A cross-disciplinary analysis of policy and practices. Arts Education Policy Review, 122(3), 158-170.

Ormrod, J. E. (2000). Educational psychology: developing learners (3rd ed.). Pearson Merrill Prentice Hall.

Özer, A. K. (2008). İletişimsizlik becerisi (12th ed.). Sistem Yayıncılık.

Panadero, E., & Alonso-Tapia, J. (2013). Self-assessment: Theoretical and practical connotations. When it happens, how is it acquired, and what to do to develop it in our students? Electronic Journal of Research in Educational Psychology, 11(2), 551–576. https://doi: 10.14204/ejrep.30.12200

Paolini, A. C. (2020). Social-emotional learning: the key to career readiness. Anatolian Journal of Education, 5(1), 125-134.

Park, M. H., Riley, J. G., & Branch, J. M. (2020). Developing self-awareness using mindfulness meditation with pre-service teachers: reflections on practice. Journal of Early Childhood Teacher Education, 41(2), 183-196.

Payton, J., Weissberg, R. P., Durlak, J. A., Dymnicki, A. B., Taylor, R. D., Schellinger, K. B., & Pachan, M. (2008). The positive impact of social and emotional learning for kindergarten to eighth-grade students: Findings from three scientific reviews. Collaborative for Academic, Social, and Emotional Learning. http://www.lpfch.org/sel/casel-narrative.pdf

Reicher, H. (2010). Building inclusive education on social and emotional learning: Challenges and perspectives–a review. International Journal of Inclusive Education, 14(3), 213-246.

Richardson, B. G., & Shupe, M. J. (2003). The importance of teacher self-awareness in working with students with emotional and behavioral disorders. Teaching Exceptional Children, 36, 8–13.

Rode, J. C., Arthaud-Day, M. L., Mooney, C. H., Near, J. P., Baldwin, T. T., Bommer, W. H., & Rubin, R. S. (2005). Life satisfaction and student performance. Academy of Management Learning & Education, 4(4), 421-433.

Roorda, D. L., Koomen, H. M. Y., Spilt, J. L., & Oort, F. J. (2011). The influence of affective teacher-student relationships on students’ school engagement and achievement: A meta-analytic approach. Review of Educational Research, 81(4), 493–529. https://doi: 10.3102/0034654311421793

Rose‐Krasnor, L. (1997). The nature of social competence: A theoretical review. Social Development, 6(1), 111-135.

Schiepe-Tiska, A., Dzhaparkulova, A., & Ziernwald, L. (2021). A mixed-methods approach to investigating social and emotional learning at schools: Teachers’ familiarity, beliefs, training, and perceived school culture. Frontiers in Psychology, 12, 518634.

Schonert-Reichl, K. A. (2017). Social and emotional learning and teachers. The future of children, 137-155.

Schonert-Reichl, K. A. (2019). Advancements in the landscape of social and emotional learning and emerging topics are on the horizon. Educational Psychologist, 54(3), 222-232.

Selvi, K. (2010). Teachers’ competencies. Cultura. International Journal of Philosophy Culture and Axiology, (7)1, 167-175.

Shamsuddin, N., & Rahman, R. A. (2014). The relationship between emotional intelligence and job performance of call center agents. Procedia-Social and Behavioral Sciences, 129, 75-81.

Supriatna, E., Nur, E. V. A., & Andayani, S. (2022). How is the description of the teacher's social interaction on social-emotional learning? Psychology Research on Education and Social Sciences, 3(1), 19-24.

Tabbodi, M., Rahgozar, H., & Makki Abadi, M. M. (2015). The relationship between happiness and academic achievements. European Online Journal of Natural and Social Sciences: Proceedings, 4(1), 241-246.

Tran, T. N., & Nguyen, T. D. H. (2021). Literature review of social-emotional competence: approach to professional standards of preschool teachers. In Proceedings of 1st Hanoi Forum on Pedagogical and Educational Sciences, 550-562.

Türk Sanayicileri ve İş İnsanları Derneği (2019). Social and emotional learning skills: the key to work and life competencies on the verge of the new industrial revolution. https: //tusiad.org/tr/yayinlar/raporlar/item/10450-sosyal-ve-duygusal-ogrenme-becerileri.

Uşaklı, H. (2018). Drama-based social, emotional learning. Global Research in Higher Education, 1(1),1-16. https://doi: 10.22158/he.v1n1p1

Verma, S. K. (2022). KODA sosyal-duygusal öğrenme programı. Alternatif Eğitim Dergisi, 7(15), 69.

Weinert, F. E. (2001). Concept of competence: A conceptual clarification. In D. S. Rychen & L. H. Salganik (Ed.), Defining and selecting key competencies (pp. 45–65). Hogrefe & Huber Publishers.

Weissberg, R. P., Durlak, J. A., Domitrovich, C. E., & Gullotta, T. P. (Ed.). (2015). Social and emotional learning: Past, present, and future. In J. A. Durlak, C. E. Domitrovich, R. P. Weissberg, & T. P. Gullotta (Eds.), Handbook of social and emotional learning: Research and practice (pp. 3–19). Guilford Publications.

Whitford, D. K., & Emerson, A. M. (2018). Empathy intervention to reduce implicit Bias in pre-service teachers. Psychological Reports, 0(0), 1–19.

Woolfolk, A. (1998). Educational psychology (6th ed.). Allyn Bacon.

Williford, A. P., & Sanger Wolcott, C. (2015). SEL and student-teacher relationships. In J. A. Durlak, C. E. Domitrovich, R. P. Weissberg & T. P. Gullotta (Eds.), Handbook of social and emotional learning: Research and Practice, (pp. 229-243). Guilford Publications.

Winthrop, R., & McGivney, E. (2016). Skills for a changing world: Advancing quality learning for vibrant societies. Brookings Institution.

Wong, C. S., & Law, K. S. (2017). The effects of leader and follower emotional intelligence on performance and attitude: An exploratory study. In Leadership Perspectives, 97-128.

Yavuz, S., & Güzel, U. (2020). Relationship between communication skills and social problem-solving skills of Turkish education teacher candidates. International Online Journal of Educational Sciences, 12(1), 299-311.

Yılmaz, N. (2011). Okul öncesi öğretmenlerinin iletişim becerileri, problem çözme becerileri ve empatik eğilim düzeyleri. (Thesis No: 326017) [Master Thesis, Muğla Sıtkı Koçman University]. Turkish Council of Higher Education Theses Center.

Yoder, N., Martinez-Black, T., Dermody, C., Godek, D., & Dusenbery, L. (2021). State theory of action: Systemic social and emotional learning for states. CASEL. https://casel.org/systemic-social-and-emotional-learning-for-states/.

Yoke, L. B., & Panatik, S. A. (2015). Emotional intelligence and job performance among school teachers. Asian Social Science, 11(13), 227-234.

Zins, J. E., Bloodworth, M. R., Weissberg, R. P., & Walberg, H. J. (2007). The scientific base linking social and emotional learning to school success. Journal of Educational and Psychological Consultation,17(2-3), 191-210.
How to Cite
Özdemir, E., & Babadoğan, M. (2023). Teacher Candidates’ Training Needs for Social-Emotional Competencies. International Journal of Curriculum and Instructional Studies (IJOCIS), 13(1), 95-122. https://doi.org/https://doi.org/10.31704/ijocis.2023.005